How to choose a suitable solar storage battery
Solar storage battery is the storage battery which is applied to solar power generation system. The off-grid solar power generation system converts the solar power into electricity in accordance with photoelectric effect. Generally, it consists of solar module, solar charge controller, solar storage battery and inverter.
Generally speaking, the function of solar module is converting the solar power into electricity and supplying electricity to the load or storage battery. The solar charge controller protects the charge and discharge of storage battery. The inverter is responsible for converting direct current into alternating current. Solar storage battery is used for storing electricity.
When the solar module can not function well at night or in the rainy days, the storage battery will supply electricity to the load and keep it work. The working modes of storage battery can be divided into two types. One is cycle use mode, which means that the storage battery is frequently charging and discharging. The other is floating use mode, which means that the storage battery is frequently charging.
With the promotion and popularization of solar power generation system, the solar storage battery has become more and more well-known.
The solar storage battery is supposed to have the following features:
1、Good performance in deep cycle, overcharge and overdischarge.
2、Long lifespan and special technological design.
3、Be adapted to different environments, such as the regions of high altitude or high temperature or low temperature.
There are basic four types of solar storage batteries. That is, lead-acid maintenance-free storage battery, ordinary lead-acid storage battery, colloid storage battery and alkaline nickel-cadmium storage battery.
Generally, the most common solar storage batteries are lead-acid maintenance-free storage battery and colloid storage battery. The two types of storage batteries are suitable for solar power system with good performance especially in the unmanned power station.
The most remarkable advantage of lead-acid maintenance-free storage battery is maintenance-free. Compared with ordinary lead-acid storage battery, the electrolyte consumption is small. Within the lifespan, the lead-acid maintenance-free storage battery doesn’t need to supplement distilled water. Besides, it has the features of shatter-proof, heat-resistant, small-sized and low self-discharge. Correspondingly, the price of it is higher than the price of ordinary lead-acid storage battery. As for the service life, lead-acid maintenance-free storage battery is supposed to be changed after 3 years.
Colloid storage battery is the upgraded version of ordinary lead-acid battery, which contains colloid electrolyte instead of sulfuric acid electrolyte. It is better than ordinary battery in safety, charge capacity, discharge performance and service life.
There is no flowing liquid in the colloid storage battery. Therefore, compared with the same-sized ordinary storage battery, colloid storage battery has larger electrolyte capacity and thermal capacity as well as stronger heat dissipation ability.
Colloid storage battery has many advantages. First, it has good performance in self-discharge. Second, it can recover soon at the circumstance of overdischarge. Finally, it has strong resistance to overcharge.
The usage and maintenance of solar storage battery
（1）The working temperature is supposed to be 15℃ to 20℃.
（2）The connection method: Connect the positive electrode with positive electrode and connect the negative electrode with negative electrode. Hence the electric power will be double while the voltage is still the same.
（3）When charging the battery with alternating current, it is better to use the multi-stage charging method. That is, equalized charging the battery with constant current in the initial stage until the voltage get stable and constant. And then charge the battery with floating charge mode.
（4）To keep the storage battery clean. The installed solar storage battery should be covered with vaseline to prevent from corrosion.
（5）To monitor and regulate the solar storage battery online. Measure and analyse internal resistance of battery in order to find out the problem and maintain the battery in time.
（6）The solar storage battery should be placed in a ventilated and cool location.
How to choose a suitable solar storage battery
When choosing the solar storage battery, we need to know about differences in manufacturing technology and usage of different kinds of storage batteries. First, we are supposed to be clear about the requirements for the battery, such as operating frequency, application environment, service life, instantaneous discharge rate and other requirements related to the performance of battery.
Secondly, we need to know about the electrical property of storage battery, which includes product design parameters, product electrical property parameters, actual service life, application environment, prices of different types and warranty period.