Solar Energy Storage Battery Types

Nowadays, energy storage systems have become widely accepted as efficient ways of reducing reliance on fossil fuels. Energy storage has long been one of the most prevalent challenges to the large-scale feasibility of solar power, but thanks to advances in solar panel battery bank technology, there are plenty of batteries on the market today that can allow homeowners to take full advantage of their solar production.

Battery energy storage systems are one of the fastest growing technologies in the sustainable energy industry. A battery energy storage system is the ideal way to capitalize on renewable energy sources, like solar energy. 

There are multiple models of batteries capable of storing solar energy; each comes with its advantages and disadvantages. The following are the four types of battery mainly used for solar energy storage applications.


Lithium-ion batteries

The most common type of battery used in energy storage systems is lithium-ion battery. In fact, lithium-ion batteries make up 90% of the global grid battery storage market.If you have a solar battery at your home or business, it is almost certainly a lithium ion battery.

Lithium-ion batteries have a lot of advantages. They require almost no regular maintenance. They also have a higher battery energy density, which means that they can hold more energy in a smaller space. Therefore, lithium-ion batteries are best for residential solar installations because they can hold more power in a limited space. Also, lithium-ion batteries have a longer lifespan, and most have a guaranteed warranty of at least 10 years. However, one of the biggest disadvantages of lithium-ion batteries is that they are more expensive than other energy storage technologies.


Lead acid batteries

Lead acid batteries are the oldest type among these four battery types: they’ve been around since the 19th century. Lead-acid batteries may be familiar to you since they are the most popular battery for vehicles. They have a shorter lifespan than other battery options, but are the least expensive. They have high specific power, low specific energy and are capable of high discharge currents.

However, they are heavy and not environmentally friendly. Flooded lead acid batteries require ventilation and regular maintenance to operate correctly, which increases the chances of the battery leaking. They also have a low depth of discharge (DoD), so they need to be charged more often. The reliability of lead-acid batteries is great for off-grid solar systems, or for emergency backup storage in case of a power outage.


Nickel based batteries

Nickel based batteries have been used in large-scale energy storage projects as they perform well in all types of temperatures. Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) is the most common Nickel based battery technology used. They are more suitable for off-grid installation as they are a reliable backup system and don’t require regular maintenance but lack of maintenance will reduce their cycle counts.

However, they have low specific energy compared to newer systems and have a high self-discharge. They are also subject to memory effects and the low cell voltage of those batteries mean that many cells are required to achieve high voltage.


Flow batteries

Flow batteries are an emerging technology in the energy storage sector.

They contain a water-based electrolyte liquid that flows between two separate chambers, or tanks, within the battery. When charged, chemical reactions occur which allow the energy to be stored and subsequently discharged. These batteries are now beginning to rise in popularity.

Their larger size makes them more expensive than the other battery types. The high price, combined with the large size, makes it hard to adapt them to residential use.

Energy storage is the future and now is the time to reap the benefits of technology and renewable energy. Deciding on the battery storage technology will impact the whole power system use and longevity. Hope this article will help you find the most suitable solar battery to meet your need.

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